A 40 years old male presented with uncontrolled hypertension of two years duration. Despite receiving beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and an ACE inhibitor, his blood pressure remains elevated. He also complains of polyuria, polydipsia, and generalized muscle weakness.

On examination, his  BP is 180/110 mmHg. Funduscopy reveals grade III hypertensive retinopathy. Rest of the examination is normal. Labs show:
Serum Sodium: 147 mEq/L

serum Potassium: 2.9 mEq/L
Bicarbonate: 26 mmol/l

RFTs, BSR and Urine R/E: Normal

  1. What is the likely diagnosis? 
  2. What is the differential diagnosis?
  3. What further investigations are required?
  4. How would you treat this patient?

question key
key for the above questions

Key to the above questions and a brief discussion of the topic is given below. New candidates should try to solve the case before looking at the key.

What is the likely diagnosis?

Primary hyperaldosteronism/ conns syndrome

What is the differential diagnosis?

Essential hypertension, pheochromocytoma, renal artery stenosis, Cushing’s syndrome

What further investigations are required?

Aldosterone and renin levels, CT scan of adrenals, bilateral adrenal vein sampling to determine if the cause is unilateral or bilateral

How would you treat this patient with uncontrolled hypertension?

For bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, spironolactone is given.

For a unilateral adenoma, spironolactone or laparoscopic adrenalectomy is required


discussion on hypertension
discussion

Hyperaldosteronism or conns syndrome:

Conn’s syndrome or primary hyperaldosteronism is a condition of excess aldosterone secretion by the adrenal glands. It is characterized by uncontrolled hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis.

Hyperaldosteronism can be due to adrenal adenoma, adrenal hyperplasia (unilateral or bilateral) or rarely adrenal carcinoma.


Clinical features of hyperaldosteronism:

Patients with hyperaldosteronism primarily present with hypertension, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypomagnesemia.

Because of the effects of hypokalemia patient scan present with muscle weakness. Muscle weakness is more profound in patients with a potassium level of less than 2.5 mEq/L.

Patients with hyperaldosteronism are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and strokes compared to other causes of hypertension like essential hypertension Cushing’s syndrome and pheochromocytoma.


Diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism:

Hyperaldosteronism is diagnosed by doing the aldosterone and renin levels. Aldosterone-renin ratio is usually elevated in primary hyperaldosteronism.

Computed Tomographic scans of the adrenal may be done to look for adrenal hypertrophy or a mass/ adenoma. In patients with adrenal hyperplasia, bilateral adrenal vein sampling should be done to differentiate between a unilateral and bilateral disease.

Patients with adrenal adenoma have more profound hypertension, hypokalemia and postural increase in aldosterone levels compared to patients with adrenal hyperplasia. This is also the basis of the postural stimulation test.


Treatment of uncontrolled hypertension and hyperaldosteronism:

Surgery is curative only in unilateral disease. All patients and specifically patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia may benefit from aldosterone receptor antagonists like spironolactone and eplerenone.

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the procedure of choice. Patients should have plasma aldosterone levels measured one day after surgery to assess for the cure. Patients should be monitored for hyperkalemia after surgery because of transient hypoaldosteronism.

Serum potassium levels should be measured at least weekly for four to six weeks. The preferred intravenous fluid after surgery is isotonic saline without potassium. Patients, when discharged should be advised a sodium-rich diet.

Patients who are not candidates for surgical treatment should be given spironolactone or eplerenone. Since spironolactone has anti-androgen properties, men may be advised eplerenone to reduce chances of painful gynecomastia.

Amiloride is an alternative potassium-sparing diuretic for patients not responding or tolerating both the drugs.

Uncontrolled hypertension in a male with female genitalia

abdominal pain and seizures

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Haseeb AshrafDr. NaveedNaveedFarhanYahya khan Recent comment authors
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Yahya khan
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1.Primary aldosteronism ( conn syndrome )
2. D/Dx include malignant hypertension, renal artery stenosis, gitelman syndrome, barrter syndrome.
3. Serum aldosterone level, 24 hour urinary aldosterone excretion test, CT scan and MRI abdomen, adrenal venous sampling.
4. Calcium channel blocker, spironolactone, glucocorticoids, ACE-I and ARBs, and surgical removal of adrenal adenoma.

Naveed
Member

Q1: Primary Hyperaldosteronism Q2: CAH, Renal Artery stenosis, Cushing’s disease Q3: Renin and aldesterone serum levels with ratio as serum aldosterone levels will be high and renin will be low which will happen in conn’s syndrome. Unless there is increase in renin level due to some other reason which will lead to increase in aldosterone too but in that case the ratio will be low. In such cases patient will still present with similer symptoms but the reason would not be Primary Hyperaldosteronism. S. cortisol levels should be done, along with imagine studies like CT and MRI for adrenal glands.… Read more »

Yahya khan
Guest

Sir when we follow your lecture then we will get good marks in sha Allah

Yahya khan
Guest

Okay sir i thought its a disease of females

Dr. Naveed
Guest
Dr. Naveed

CAH again would be down the list as the patient developed HTN 2 yrs back. And yes it does occur both in male and in females. 17-OHase and 21-OHase deficiency both would lead to hypertension and hypokalemia. Maybe u r confusing it with that fact that 17-OHase def. woukd lead to ambigious genitalia in males while 11 and 21-OHase def leads to ambigous genitalia in females due to increase DHEAs and androteinedione. Which is converted to testosterone. Sir in case of partial enzyme deficiency can a patient present with late onset of symptoms or the symptoms are still present at… Read more »

Dr. Naveed
Guest
Dr. Naveed

Answer to this question sir?

Haseeb Ashraf
Guest
Haseeb Ashraf

What is the likely diagnosis? the clinical and laboratory findings combined with the presence of hypertension suggests the most likely diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, however, the possibility of cushing’s cannot be excluded until detailed history and examination findings are given What is the differential diagnosis? Primary aldosteronism Cushings syndrome Paraneoplastic syndrome with ectopic ACTH Exogenous steroids with excessive mineralocarticoid activity liddle’s syndrome Resistent hypertension with excessive diuretic use renal artery stenosis Hyperthyroidism What further investigations are required? Baseline tests including CBC to look for hemoglobin and WBC count, Kidney function test, urine routine examination for albuminuria, hematuria, casts or nitrites,… Read more »

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[…] mellitus, those on potassium-sparing diuretics, high potassium diet, potassium supplements, hyperaldosteronism, and patients using Aliskiren or other ACE inhibitors/ ARBs (contraindicated with concomitant […]